Glossary of Symbols and Definitions


Glossary of Symbols and Definitions  Rev-


Active Surveillance (AS) used herein as identical to WW or Delayed Treatment

Aggressive Prostate Cancer-A cancer is considered Aggressive if it has a high PSA, usually above 15 or 20, or if the PSA is rising rapidly, and /or the Gleason Grade is 8, 9, or 10, or if the Seminal Vesicles contain cancer, or if cancer is in the Lymph Nodes. Cancer in the Seminal Vesicles or Lymph Nodes is considered a systemic disease

Biopsy- The removal of a number of small tissue samples to be analyzed to determine if a prostate cancer exists.

FDA –The Food and Drug Administration is a US Government organization that must approve of a drug before it may be ordered by a physician.

Fossa is the Fatty Tissue that surrounds the Prostate Capsule

High Riser is a man with a high PSA  above 10 or 20) that is increasing in value even after treatment. The PSA could be in the thousands in severe cases.

Gleason Grade (GG)  

The cancer biopsy cells are analyzed by a pathologist. A GG of one (1) is an almost normal prostate cell.  A GG of five (5) means the cells hardly look like a prostate cells, and are very cancerous and dangerous.

Gleason Score (GS) The summation of the most prevalent cells, plus the second most prevalent cells is the Gleason Score.  A 1+1= 2 is very rare. The usual GS are 5, 6, or 7 . Note that a 4+3=7 is a more aggressive cancer than a 3+4=7, because there are more grade 4 cancer cells than grade 3 cancer cells. Gleason Scores 8, 9 and 10 are considered very aggressive cancers.

A low grade PC is usually equivalent to a Gleason Score of 2, 3, 4 or 5

A medium grade PC is the equivalent to a Gleason Score 6 or 7 (3+4=7, not 4+3=7)

A Gleason Score of 4+3=7 is in between medium and high and may be treated either way

A high grade PC is the equivalent to a Gleason Score 8, 9 or10. These are aggressive cancers.

A tertiary grade PC is when some Gleason Grade 5 cells are detected in the pathology report. If about 5 % of the cells are Gleason Grade 5, the score is changed to a higher grade score

Lymph Nodes- The body has a Lymph system that carries white blood cells and other goodies throughout the body. The Lymph Nodes are located throughout the body. If the prostate cancer enters the lymph nodes in the pelvic area, the cancer is considered to be a systemic disease

Margins are the term used to indicate the border of an organ with cancer. A clean or negative margin means the cancer cannot be located past that location

Medical Oncologist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating patients with cancer in various parts of the body. In this web site we are referring to Prostate Cancer specialists. This doctor specializes in advanced and or aggressive cancers.

Metastasis – The spread of a cancer, locally (such as into the fatty tissue surrounding the prostate), or to distant body organs and or bones. 

Pathologist is a medical doctor who uses a microscope and other sophisticated equipment to determine if a tissue or blood sample contains any cancer or other abnormalities. The doctor and patient both should receive the Pathology Report, as should any doctor a patient uses as a second opinion or other specialist.

Prostate – One of 3 male sex organs, it liquefies the sperm to make semen for ejaculation.

In later life if affords many medical doctors a wonderful income.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a chemical produced by a man’s prostate.  This test will determine how much of this antigen exists. It is used very frequently to determine if a man might have a prostate cancer problem prior to any treatment.  After a man is treated for prostate cancer, it is a good indication of whether the cancer is progressing.

Radiation Oncologist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating patients with radiation. Prostate cancer is in the abdominal area, and we are referring to Prostate Cancer specialists.

Recurrence.  A biochemical recurrence is when the PSA rises after any treatment. In a few cases, a recurrence may be detected after pain occurs, and a cancer is located. This usually means that any previous treatment did not cure the cancer.

Salvage Treatment. is any treatment after a previous treatment has failed to stop / cure the cancer. For example, having radiation after surgery does not  cure the cancer, or visa-versa. 

Three prostate cancer specialists are:

– Urologist is a surgeon.

– Radiation Oncologist treats with various forms of radiation.

– Medical Oncologist usually treats advanced cases and is often used as an expert consultant.

They treat with Anti hormones, often called Anti Deprivation Therapy (ADT), and chemo

therapy. The Chemo may be an approved drug or treatment or part of a clinical trial.

Urologist is a medical doctor, who usually performs surgery in the abdominal area.  Some specialize in men patients.  In this web site we are referring to Prostate Cancer specialists

 Understanding the TNM Prostate Cancer Staging System

Determining the extent of prostate cancer is important for predicting the course of the disease and in choosing the best treatment. The TNM (tumor, nodes, metastasis) staging system is used to describe a cancer’s clinical stage, or how far it has spread.

!2/6/2012- Rev D

Rev E

January 22, 2013